Other uses incude non-reactive blanket in the manufacture of titanium and other reactive elements and as a protective atmosphere for growing silicon and germanium crystals.
K., the Earth’s average temperature warmed by 1.4ºF (0.8ºC) between the 1850s and 2000s, mostly during 1911-19-1998: * Sources of uncertainty in surface temperature data involve “very incomplete” temperature records in the earlier years, “systematic changes in measurement methods,” “calculation and reporting errors,”       data adjustments that are performed when instruments are moved to different locations, instrument precision, instrument positioning, and missing documentation/raw data.  definitive assessment of uncertainties is impossible, because it is always possible that some unknown error has contaminated the data, and no quantitative allowance can be made for such unknowns. * Oceans constitute about 71% of the Earth’s surface. Changes in air temperature over the world’s oceans are typically based on measurements of water temperature at depths varying from less than 3 feet to more than 49 feet.  This data is combined with changes in air temperature over land areas to produce global averages.  contrasted water and air temperature changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean using three sources of measurements.as “an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere,” either by “human industry and agriculture” or by natural causes like the Earth has “experienced numerous” times “through its history.” * Some writers use the phrases “global warming” and “climate change” to mean temperature changes strictly caused by human activity.   Other writers use adjectives such as “man-made” and “anthropogenic” to distinguish between human and non-human causes.  (“Anthropogenic” means “of human origin,” and “AGW” stands for “anthropogenic global warming.”) * Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility require the use of “language that is precise and unambiguous.” Hence, when human causes are stated or implied, this research uses terms like “man-made” and “human-induced.” * The greenhouse effect is a warming effect caused by certain gases that retain heat from sunlight. Without such gases, the average surface temperature of the Earth would be below freezing, and as explained by the , “life, as we know it, would not exist.” The global warming debate is centered upon whether added greenhouse gases released by human activity will overheat the Earth and cause harmful effects. * Human activities currently release about 37 billion metric tons of CO2 per year, which equates to about 5% of natural CO2 emissions.Natural processes absorb the equivalent of all natural emissions plus about 57% of man-made emissions, leaving an additional 16 billion metric tons of CO2 in the atmosphere each year. † In permafrost regions, perennial snow accumulations trap air bubbles that leave records of past airborne CO2 concentrations,   and because regional CO2 concentrations vary by less than 10 parts per million over the Earth, these local records are globally representative.  * Instruments located on satellites can measure certain properties of oxygen that vary with temperature.Argon has approximately the same solubility as oxygen and it is 2.5 times as soluble in water as nitrogen .This chemically inert element is colorless and odorless in both its liquid and gaseous forms. This gas is isolated through liquid air fractionation since the atmosphere contains only 0.94% argon.